Battery Cooling Tubes

Battery cooling tubes are widely used in cylindrical cells thermal management. They are also called serpentine tubes or liquid cooling tubes. Battery cooling tubes are developed with highly refined manufacturing quality, to make sure they can fit with cylindrical cells side curves, hence large contact surface between cooling tube and cells can be guaranteed .
With their large internal surface area, they can achieve more efficient heat transfer and are well adapted to different forms to work with 1865, 2170, 4680, 4695 and many other dimensions of cylindrical cells.
Battery cooling tubes
The reliable thermal management solution for cylindrical cells and even prismatic cells.
XD Thermal battery cooling tubes use automotive standard technology, deliver excellence and performance in battery heat dissipation.
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Typical Applications For Battery cooling tubes
cooling plate in Electrical vehicles- XD THERMAL
Electrical Vehicles
cooling plate in Energy storage systems - XD THERMAL
Energy Storage Systems
cooling plate in Heavy duties - XD THERMAL
Heavy Duties
cooling plate in eVTOL - XD THERMAL
cooling plate in Marines - XD THERMAL
Hot Selling Products
XD Thermal uses all different workmanship to fit in with your engineering needs.
Liquid cooling tube2 - XD THERMAL
C2P Battery Cooling Tubes
Most preferred type of battery cooling tubes so far in automotive industry. Giants like Tesla or BMW use the same concept. Both U turn structure and Straight structure are available. Very good compatibility for 4680, 4695 and 46125 cylindrical cells.
C2M Liquid Cooling Tube-XDTHERMAL
C2M Bended Battery Cooling Tubes
Bended cooling tubes can be modified as per module layout, making cells deployment flexible. In order to utilize every single corner in the battery module, such cooling tubes can have inlets and outlets at the same side or different sides.
liquid cooling tube 3 - XD THERMAL
Tri-way Battery Cooling Tubes
3 parallel cooling ribbons provide sufficient contact and heat transfer performance for cylindrical cells. Excellent compacted build, reduce the connection numbers to 1/3 of it’s original requirement. Faster and easier for assembly, make smaller battery module dimensions possible!

Type of Product

Number of Connections


Lead Time for OTS

Cell Compatibility

Ideal for

C2P Cooling Tube
EVs, Heavy Duties, Marines, eVTOL
C2M Cooling Tube
EVs, Residence ESS, eVTOL
Tri-way Cooling Tube
EVs, Heavy Duties, Marines
XD Thermal is a professional battery cooling tubes manufactuer in China, with rich experience in supplying cooling components for automotive OEMs and other fields which run Li-ion battery packs. We not only produce cooling parts, but also provide engineering service, including design, simulation and validation tests.
Mates to be mated for Your Cooling Tubes
There are multiple mating parts that work together with cooling plates and battery cells. Each part mated and assembled in every battery pack.
Bulkhead fitting


(coolant inlet & outlet)

Quick Connectors - XD THERMAL

Quick Connectors

thermal interface - XD THERMAL

Thermal interface

pipe system

Pipe lines

Customers reviews

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Normally 35 days, including tooling development and sample production.
Aluminum 3 series and 6 series. Excellent property in anti-corrosion and mechanical strength.
It is suitable for cylindrical cells. The specs of 18650, 21700, 32140, 4680, 4695, 60160 can be compatible for XD Thermal’s cooling tubes. Customized solutions can be available as well.
XD Thermal provides validation tests, by doing multiple tests, clients can have quantifiable data about burst pressure, anti-corrosion performance, flow resistance and so on.
Each battery cooling pipe manufactured by XD Thermal will be tested with helium tester, which is a very accurate and sensitive testing method over water test.
C2P straight cooling tubes are getting more popular among EV OEMs. It has very good compatibility with 4680 series battery cells, by using such solution, number of welding can be reduced, power density can be lifted up to a higher level. C2P cooling tubes can be used in automated assembly in GA line in OEM place. So it is getting a much bigger share.
Battery Liquid Cooling Tubes:
The Comprehensive Guide (2024)
At XD THERMAL, our liquid cooling plates are essential for efficient battery thermal management, ensuring optimal performance and safety. Engineered to automotive-grade standards, these plates prevent overheating, enhance durability, and maintain consistent temperature distribution across battery packs. With our commitment to quality, certified by IATF 16949, we guarantee products that meet strict industry requirements, delivering significant benefits to your battery systems. Choose XD THERMAL for superior protection and performance.

Table of Contents

What is battery cooling tubes?

Battery cooling tube is also called liquid cooling ribbon, it can be seen in Tesla model 3 and model Y. It deployed with curved surface, so cylindrical cells, such 4680 cells, can be well adated to its geometric structure. Battery cooling tube is considered as an active cooling component for battery packs, especially for Li-ion battery packs. Heat generated and accumulated while battery go through charging and discharging. Without heat management, battery life and performance would be seriously impacted. Thus liquid cooling plates is commonly deployed in today’s Li-ion battery packs.

What is liquid cooling?

Liquid cooling mainly uses water-glycol mixture or freon-like coolant. These fluids runs inside of cooling components, absorb heat from the interface where they run through. Fluids working mode: cool fluids go into components via inlets–> absorb heat –> go out of components via outlets–> fluids cooled down via external chiller –> again go into components.

What advantages does liquid cooling have?

Battery pack size can be more compacted; Cooling effectiveness much higher than air cooling; higher IP projection level; possibility of waste heat recycle; Compatible in wider range of climate.

What material is used in making battery cooling plates?

Aluminum is the most preferred material, because aluminum is lighter and recyclable. 3003, 3005, 6061, 6063 are some of the common aluminum alloys used. 3 series enjoy excellent anti-corrosion performance, in most 3 series coolign plates proejcts, it can withstand over 1000 hours of salt spray test. 6 series material is usually used in higher strength solution, or act as connectors.

How many kinds of cylindrical cooling pipe are there?

a) C2P cooling pipe. The most preferred type of cooling pipe so far for automotive and heavy duty battery packs. It has very good compatibility with 4680 Li-on battery cells.
b) C2M cooling pipe. It is usually used in smaller battery modules, or used in fields where the use of space needs optimal.
c) Tri-way cooling pipe. This three-in-one solution can reduce the number of connectors, so it is efficient in pack assembly, and cost-saving.

How a cooling tube is been made?

There are multiple types of cooling tubes. However, there might be several steps which are in common.
serpentine tube structure design considerations- XD THERMAL

What is brazing, and what does it do in cooling plates production?

Yes, brazing is used for joinning cooling tube body with spigots. The brazing process will make the aluminum material stay in a semi-melded condition, then mating parts will attach to each other, and a strong joint between them will be created.

How many types of brazing will be used in Tesla-like cooling ribbon production?

There are two popular brazing ways.
First one is continuous brazing, or called corridor brazing. It is done in a long and open furnace.
The second one is induction brazing. It is done near a heated circuit.

What brazing method should I use?

  1. When eyeing on highest productivity, and shorter cycle time, continuous brazing suits you well.
  2. When higher strength is required, and cooling plates is thicker in its dimension, go for vacuum brazing.
  3. When bonding is required in a tiny area, induction brazing should be on your list.

What kind of connectors/inlets & outlets are recomended?

Connectors, sometimes also called inlets & outlets, are the places where cooling tubes connecting to pipeline systems. Since connectors play the role of mating, so its dimension and shape should match its mating parts. We suggest following SAE, VDA or CQC standards. Under these standards’ connectors, pipelines can be easily assembled.

How connectors are made?

Usually connectors are made from CNC, stamping and die casting.

How to make insulation on the surface of cooling tubes?

Below are the popular ways of cooling tube insulation.
  1. Do insulation coating on the external surface of cooling tubes.
  2. Attach insulation films on top of cooling tubes.
  3. Use thermal interface materials to do both heat transfer and insulation job.

Things you should know before designing a battery cooling tube

In order to make a robust cooling tubes. There are certain ABCs to follow. For example, choose the right wall thickness of micro channel tube when running pressure is at the higher side; When maintaining mechanical strength is at top priority, then try to avoid heat treatment in the production of cooling plates.

What is common running pressue for serpentine tubes?

Mostly it stays between 1-3 bars for most of cooling plates and its systems for passenger cars. For heavy duties or other utilities, running pressure would be higher.

Should I always go for as much as lower flow resistance?

The answer is no. Cooling pipe’s job is do proper heat dissipation inside of battery packs. When flow resistance is way low, it will make fluid run much faster than it should be. Too fast speed means less time of heat exchange, heat transfer could not be sufficiently done.

What insulation level should I set?

2U+1K is the design guideline for most projects. Find nominal voltage of your battery pack, make it two times more then plus 1000 V. This standard suits most scenarios. Currently, most cylindrical cooling tubes have insulation level around 3Kv.

What ultimate pressure can cylindrical cooling plates withstand?

With proper wall thickness, battery cooling tubes can withstand over 100 bars.

The tests might required for a cooling tube project

Apart from regular product tests, cooling tubes will have to go through a series of validation tests.

Anti-corrosion tests

Anti-corrosion tests will verify cooling tubes’ durability in corrosion environment. External tests will be done with salt spray chamber. Internal tests will be done in circulation stations. Based on the materials’ selection, XD Thermal’s cooling tubes will be durable more than 1000 hours in corrosion tests.

Burst pressure

Burst pressure tests will help designers to locate cooling tube’s ultimate pressure resistance. One of the inlets or outlets will be sealed before testing, pressure with liquid will be injected from another port till cooling tube start cracking. Normally, cooling tubes can withstand 60-140 bars pressure.

Flow resistance

Too much flow resistance will add unnecessary burden to the cooling system’s pump. At the same time, higher flow resistane means reduced flow speed, in most of the cases, cooling tubes could not reach to heat dissipation target with too high flow resistance. So get flow resistance optimized and tested in development period if very important. Such tests can be done in a liquid circulation station.

How to install a cooling tube?

Inserting Installation

First get all cylindrical cells sit in right position, insert the cooling tube into the space between each two rows of battery cells.

What is the thermal interface material between cylindrical cooling plates and cells?

Thermal interface material called TIM for short, it is a silicon based material which aims to fill invisible gap between cells and cylindrical cooling plates. TIM could guarantee sufficient contact between cylindrical cooling plates and cells, and at the same time TIM also become an efficient conductor of heat transfer.

Horizontal installation

Cooling tube will be brushed by glues, then one row of battery cells will be pushed to the cooling plate, then another around glue brushing will be done to cells, afterwards one cooling tube after another row of cells.
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