Liquid Cooling Tube

Liquid Cooling Tube, also known as liquid-cooling tubing / serpentine tubing, is composed of thermally conductive metals (typically copper or aluminium alloys) that have been extruded and corrugated to create an internal structure with a specific number of channels. These channels conform closely to the surface of the battery cells. Serpentine tubing functions as a heat exchanger component in indirect liquid cooling systems, utilizing the circulation of coolant within the channels to dissipate heat generated by the components. Typically, 1 to 2 rows of battery cells are sandwiched between every two serpentine flat tubes. This design effectively increases the heat exchange area on the side of the battery, resulting in a more uniform temperature distribution among individual cells during operation and reducing the temperature difference across the entire battery pack

Serpentine tubing finds its primary application in which scenario?

— Cylindrical battery side liquid cooling solutions

Battery packs are composed of numerous battery cells arranged in a specific configuration. Therefore, when considering thermal management for batteries, the first aspect to account for is the inherent characteristics of the cells. For instance, square-shaped cells can be densely packed with a larger surface area, making them suitable for utilizing stamped liquid-cooling plates for bottom or side heat dissipation. 


On the other hand, cylindrical cells offer more diverse arrangement possibilities with larger gaps between cells. Hence, they are better suited for side heat dissipation using serpentine tubing that conforms to the curvature of the battery’s surface.

With the increasing market demand for cost-effective products, a series of cylindrical cells like 2170, 4680, and 4695 have emerged. It is expected that large cylindrical cells will gradually replace a portion of the market share held by square and pouch cells in the future. Efficient heat dissipation solutions for cylindrical cells of different models and designs have always been a focal point in XD Thermal’s service offerings and research endeavors

How is serpentine tube applied to battery pack thermal management?

serpentine tube structure

A typical serpentine tube is equipped with an inlet and an outlet for the coolant (water, water + ethylene glycol, or other). Under the influence of a cooling pump operating at a specified pressure, the coolant flows into the serpentine tube through the inlet and exits through the outlet. It carries away excess heat generated during battery operation at a predetermined flow rate within a specified timeframe. In large battery modules/packs, serpentine tubing is systematically arranged according to the design.As the core component of battery thermal management, the greatest technical challenge of serpentine tubing (liquid cooling tubing) lies in ensuring temperature uniformity and the accuracy of early-stage development simulations.

Different automakers have varying requirements and designs for battery thermal management based on structural demands. This necessitates specialized thermal management designs for divergent battery packs by liquid cooling plate manufacturers.


Whether collaborating with customers in joint research and development or independently designing battery liquid cooling solutions for clients, XD THERMAL offers professional technical expertise and services.

XD Thermal’s Serpentine Tube Design and Development

High Safety

Rigorous adherence to quality system standards inspection processes before product delivery, ensuring traceable quality

High Reliability 

Simulation-based design tailored to project requirements, combined with real-world testing and analysis for optimized solutions

Short Lead Times

A professional equipment fleet of over a hundred equipments guarantees timely and high-quality project delivery

High Customization Level

One-stop serpentine tube customization service, with a dedicated team of technical and business professionals providing support

High Heat Transfer Efficiency

Minimized gaps, low flow resistance, low thermal resistance, high heat transfer capacity, and uniform temperatures, aligned with design specifications

Our Customization Scope

crate your project

Flow channel customization and production

XD Thermal operates a mature raw material extrusion workshop, enabling autonomous flow channel design, including alloy type, plate temper, width, height, thickness, tendon thickness, side end wall thickness, end necking width, and end necking length.

Serpentine tube accessory joint design and production.

Serpentine tubes require suitable joints at both ends (inlet and outlet) to ensure smoother circulation and easier installation. XD Thermal offers diverse joint options, including CNC machining, stamped plate + brazing, die-casting, and more.

Rich experience in serpentine tube surface treatments.

If insulation, voltage resistance, or other performance requirements are essential, we can provide coating processes to meet your needs.


Development, production, and assembly of thermal interface materials.

XD Thermal has established dedicated production and assembly workshops for serpentine tube thermal interface materials, with a workforce of over a hundred employees.


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