How Does Lithium Battery Packaging Affect
Heat Dissipation in Square, Cylindrical, Pouch Cells?

In the ever-evolving world of lithium batteries, the packaging form plays a crucial role in determining the performance, efficiency, and safety of these energy storage devices. Whether you’re driving an electric vehicle, using a smartphone, or working with industrial equipment, the type of lithium battery inside significantly impacts your experience. Let’s delve into the fascinating world of lithium battery packaging and explore the three primary forms: square, cylindrical, and soft pack.

Square batteries provide high efficiency but face heat dissipation challenges. Cylindrical batteries offer good heat dissipation and consistency but have lower energy density. Soft pack batteries are flexible and high in energy density but more costly.

Table of Contents

Square Lithium Batteries

Structure and Composition

Square lithium batteries, often referred to as prismatic batteries, are encased in a rectangular shell, usually made of aluminum or steel. These batteries can be produced using either winding or lamination processes, depending on the specific requirements of the application.

Manufacturing Processes

The manufacturing process for square batteries involves either winding the cells into a compact form or stacking layers of cells to create the final structure. This method allows for greater flexibility in the design and size of the battery, making it suitable for various applications.

Advantages & Disadvantages


Square batteries can be packed tightly together, maximizing the use of space and improving the overall efficiency of the battery pack.

Due to their design, square batteries often have a larger single cell capacity compared to cylindrical batteries, making them ideal for applications requiring high power output.

The straightforward design of square batteries simplifies the manufacturing process and reduces potential points of failure.


Achieving consistent performance across all cells in a square battery pack can be challenging, leading to potential reliability issues.

The design of square batteries can make it difficult to dissipate heat effectively, which can impact performance and safety. Optimizing battery pack structures based on thermodynamic analyses can enhance heat dissipation and ensure consistent temperature distributions (Li et al., 2022)

Cylindrical Lithium Batteries

Structure and Composition

Cylindrical lithium batteries are among the most common types of batteries, recognized for their tubular shape. These batteries are typically housed in a cylindrical steel shell, which provides robust protection and durability.

Manufacturing Processes

The cells in cylindrical batteries are produced using a winding process, where layers of electrode material are rolled up to fit inside the cylindrical casing. This method is highly efficient and cost-effective, making it popular in various industries.

Advantages & Disadvantages


Cylindrical batteries are known for their reliable and consistent performance across all cells, which is crucial for applications where uniformity is essential.

The manufacturing process for cylindrical batteries is well-established and highly efficient, resulting in lower production costs.

Cylindrical batteries can effectively dissipate heat, thanks to their design, which helps maintain performance and safety under heavy use. Combining paraffin wax-expanded graphite composite PCM with liquid cooling significantly improves temperature uniformity and reduces maximum surface temperatures in cylindrical battery packs (Wang et al., 2023). Additionally, a central heat sink can further enhance heat dissipation (Aryanfar et al., 2023).


Despite their benefits, cylindrical batteries often have lower energy density compared to other forms, which can limit their use in applications requiring high power in a compact size.

The need for many cells to form a battery pack can complicate management and maintenance, leading to potential issues with longevity and reliability.

Pouch Cell Lithium Batteries

Structure and Composition

Soft pack, or pouch batteries, are characterized by their flexible casing made of aluminum-plastic film. This unique packaging allows for a lightweight and adaptable battery design.

Manufacturing Processes

Soft pack batteries are usually produced using a lamination process, where layers of electrode materials are stacked and enclosed within the flexible casing. This method allows for greater customization in battery shape and size.

Advantages & Disadvantages


Soft pack batteries offer a high energy density, providing more power in a smaller and lighter package.

These batteries typically exhibit excellent electrochemical performance, translating to better efficiency and reliability.

The flexible casing of soft pack batteries can help absorb impacts and reduce the risk of short circuits, enhancing safety.

The adaptability of soft pack batteries makes them ideal for applications where space and weight are critical factors.


Maintaining high consistency across all cells in a soft pack battery pack is crucial but challenging, impacting reliability.

The flexible nature of soft pack batteries can make it difficult to achieve high group efficiency, as they cannot be packed as tightly as other forms.

The materials and manufacturing processes for soft pack batteries can be more expensive, leading to higher costs.

Comparative Analysis of Packaging Forms

Efficiency and Performance

When comparing the efficiency and performance of different packaging forms, it’s essential to consider the specific application. Square batteries offer high group efficiency and large single capacities, making them suitable for high-power applications. Cylindrical batteries provide consistent performance and robust heat dissipation, ideal for situations where reliability is critical. Soft pack batteries, with their high energy density and flexible design, are perfect for lightweight and compact applications.

Energy Density

Energy density is a crucial factor in battery performance. Soft pack batteries lead in this category, offering the highest energy density among the three forms. Square batteries also provide good energy density, while cylindrical batteries, despite their other advantages, often have lower energy density.

Safety Considerations

Safety is paramount in battery design. Soft pack batteries excel in safety due to their flexible casing, which can absorb impacts. Cylindrical batteries also offer strong safety features, with their robust steel shell providing excellent protection. Square batteries, while safe, can face challenges with heat dissipation, which can impact overall safety.

Cost Implications

Cost is a significant consideration in battery selection. Cylindrical batteries are typically the most cost-effective due to their efficient manufacturing process. Square batteries offer a balance between cost and performance, while soft pack batteries, despite their higher costs, provide superior energy density and flexibility.

Heat Dissipation in Lithium Batteries

Effective heat management is crucial for maintaining battery performance and safety. Poor heat dissipation can lead to overheating, reducing the lifespan of the battery and increasing the risk of failure.

Cylindrical Batteries

Side Cooling with Serpentine Liquid Cooling Tubes
A more common method involves using serpentine liquid cooling tubes for side cooling, which provides efficient heat management across the battery pack.

Bottom Cooling
Some cylindrical batteries use liquid cooling plates for bottom cooling, which helps manage heat effectively.

Side Cooling with Serpentine Liquid Cooling Tubes -XD THERMAL

Square and Soft-Pack Batteries

Bottom Heat Dissipation
Both square and soft-pack batteries often use bottom heat dissipation methods, which help maintain performance and safety.


Emerging Side Heat Dissipation Techniques
Innovative approaches are emerging, including side heat dissipation and hybrid methods combining side and bottom cooling, to improve heat management in these batteries. Modifying the height, angle, and number of air inlets and outlets can significantly affect the heat dissipation performance of lithium-ion battery packs (Dai & Wang, 2023).

Innovations and Future Trends

Emerging Technologies

The lithium battery industry is continually evolving, with new technologies and materials being developed to improve performance, safety, and efficiency. Utilizing phase change materials in conjunction with liquid cooling optimizes heat dissipation in battery packs (Lin et al., 2022).

Hybrid Cooling Methods

Hybrid cooling methods, combining different heat dissipation techniques, are being explored to enhance thermal management in battery packs.

Advances in Material Science

Advances in material science are leading to the development of new electrode and casing materials, offering improved performance and safety in lithium batteries. Using central heat sinks and innovative designs like staggered bi-directional flow cooling and triangular spoilers also contribute to enhanced thermal performance

Lithium battery packaging—square, cylindrical, and soft pack—affects performance, efficiency, and safety. Square batteries provide high efficiency but face heat dissipation challenges. Cylindrical batteries offer good heat dissipation and consistency but have lower energy density. Soft pack batteries are flexible and high in energy density but more costly.


Effective heat management is crucial. Advances include phase change materials with liquid cooling, optimized air designs, and hybrid cooling methods, improving performance and safety across battery types.


The main types of lithium battery packaging are square (prismatic), cylindrical, and soft pack. Each type has distinct characteristics and applications.

Effective heat dissipation is crucial for maintaining battery performance, safety, and longevity. Poor heat management can lead to overheating, reduced lifespan, and increased risk of battery failure.

Cylindrical batteries typically use side cooling with serpentine liquid cooling tubes and bottom cooling with liquid cooling plates. Square and soft-pack batteries often rely on bottom heat dissipation, with emerging techniques combining side and bottom cooling for improved heat management.

Emerging technologies include hybrid cooling methods combining phase change materials and liquid cooling, optimized air flow designs, and advances in material science to enhance performance, safety, and efficiency in lithium batteries

Chris - Senior Technical Engineer -XD THERMAL


I've worked in battery thermal management for over 5 years, handling lots of international projects. If you're curious about battery liquid cooling products or services, feel free to ask me any questions!


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