How Do Thermal Interface Materials Enhance
Liquid Cooling in Battery Packs?

In today’s world, where electronic devices are becoming increasingly powerful and compact, managing heat is critical for ensuring reliable operation, optimal performance, and longer lifespans. Thermal interface materials (TIMs) play a pivotal role in enhancing heat transfer between heat-generating components and heat dissipation systems. 

This is especially crucial in modern battery pack design, particularly for liquid cooling components in electric vehicles (EVs) and high-performance batteries. Effective thermal management, facilitated by TIMs, is essential for maintaining the optimal operating temperature of battery packs, directly impacting their performance, safety, and longevity.

Table of Contents

Types of Thermal Interface Materials

Thermal interface materials (TIMs) come in various forms, each designed for specific applications and requirements, including thermal adhesives, thermal pads, thermal pates/grease, and thermal tapes.

Thermal Adhesives

They are known for their bonding properties and thermal conductivity, providing strong bonds between surfaces while facilitating efficient heat transfer.

Thermal adhesives are useful for securing components while effectively cooling them, providing both mechanical bonding and thermal management.

Once applied, they can be difficult to remove, making them less suitable for situations requiring reworkability.

Thermal pads

They made from materials like silicone or graphite, are pre-formed TIMs offering flexibility and ease of application. They fill gaps between surfaces, ensuring a uniform thermal interface, and their compressibility makes them ideal for battery packs with surface irregularities.

Thermal pads are user-friendly and maintain consistent thickness, making them ideal for applications where ease of use and reworkability are crucial. They are also more durable over time compared to pastes.

They may not conform as well as pastes to microscopic surface irregularities, potentially resulting in slightly lower thermal performance.

Thermal Pastes

Thermal pastes, also known as thermal paste, is a viscous substance applied between surfaces to enhance thermal conductivity. It fills microscopic air gaps, reducing thermal resistance and improving heat transfer, essential for high-performance applications.

Thermal pastes offer excellent conformability, allowing them to fill fine surface imperfections and ensure efficient thermal contact. They are typically used in high-performance applications such as CPUs and GPUs.

Applying thermal paste can be messy and requires precision to avoid air bubbles, which can impair thermal conductivity.

Thermal tapes

Thermal tapes combine the properties of thermal adhesives and pads, offering both bonding and thermal conductivity.

Thermal tapes are easy to apply, clean, and mess-free. They are particularly useful for quick assembly and can be easily replaced or repositioned, making them ideal for prototyping and iterative design.

There are no significant disadvantages mentioned for thermal tapes in the provided content.

Application of TIMs in Liquid Cooling Components

Thermal Conductivity Between Cooling Plates and Battery Packs

In liquid cooling systems, the cooling plates are crucial for dissipating heat from the battery cells. TIMs play a vital role in ensuring efficient heat transfer between the cooling plates and the battery pack. By filling the microscopic gaps between these surfaces, TIMs minimise thermal resistance and enhance the overall efficiency of the cooling system. This is especially important in high-power applications where heat generation can be significant, and effective heat dissipation is critical to maintaining battery performance and longevity.

Optimising Heat Transfer Pathways

The efficiency of a liquid cooling system depends on the effectiveness of the heat transfer pathways. TIMs help optimise these pathways by ensuring uniform contact between surfaces and facilitating efficient heat flow. This results in better thermal management and improved performance of the battery pack. Additionally, optimised heat transfer pathways reduce the likelihood of thermal hotspots, which can lead to uneven cell ageing and reduced battery lifespan. By improving thermal uniformity, TIMs contribute to the overall reliability and safety of the battery system.

Application Examples

A notable example of TIM application is in the battery packs of electric vehicles. Leading EV manufacturers use advanced TIMs to enhance the thermal management of their battery systems. For instance, a well-known EV manufacturer uses high-performance thermal pads in their liquid cooling systems to ensure efficient heat dissipation and maintain battery performance. These thermal pads are specifically chosen for their high thermal conductivity, compressibility, and long-term stability, which are essential for maintaining optimal battery temperatures under varying operating conditions. Another example includes the use of thermal adhesives in stationary energy storage systems, where the TIMs provide both strong bonding and efficient heat transfer, ensuring the longevity and reliability of the storage system.

Performance Evaluation of Thermal Interface Materials

Thermal Conductivity

The thermal conductivity of TIMs is crucial for their performance, ensuring efficient heat transfer and maintaining optimal battery temperatures. Different TIMs offer varying levels of thermal conductivity, and selecting the right material depends on the specific application requirements. For instance, thermal adhesives might provide moderate thermal conductivity with strong bonding properties, while thermal grease might offer higher thermal conductivity but require more precise application techniques.

Compressibility and Stress Distribution

Compressibility is essential for TIMs to conform to surface irregularities, ensuring uniform contact and effective heat transfer. Proper stress distribution prevents damage to battery pack components and ensures long-term reliability. Compressible TIMs can absorb mechanical stress and vibrations, which is particularly beneficial in automotive applications where battery packs face dynamic loads and impacts. This ability to mitigate mechanical stress enhances the structural integrity of the battery pack, reducing the risk of mechanical failure over time.

Durability and Reliability

The durability and reliability of TIMs are vital for the long-term performance of battery packs. TIMs must withstand harsh operating conditions, including temperature fluctuations, mechanical stress, and chemical exposure. High-quality TIMs maintain their thermal properties and structural integrity over time, ensuring consistent performance. Durability also includes resistance to environmental degradation, such as humidity, which can affect some thermal materials. Reliable TIMs ensure that the thermal management system operates effectively throughout the battery pack’s service life, reducing maintenance needs and improving overall system dependability.

Future Trends in Thermal Interface Materials

Research and Development of New Materials

Developing new materials with enhanced thermal properties is a key focus in the TIM industry. Innovations such as graphene-based TIMs and nanomaterials offer promising potential for improving thermal conductivity and performance. Ongoing research aims to develop TIMs that meet the increasingly stringent requirements of modern battery systems. Graphene-based TIMs, for example, offer exceptional thermal conductivity due to their unique structure and high surface area. Researchers are also exploring hybrid TIMs that combine the mechanical strength of polymers with the thermal conductivity of ceramics.

Market Demand and Development Directions

The growing demand for electric vehicles and renewable energy storage drives the need for advanced thermal management technologies. As the market for high-performance batteries expands, the demand for efficient TIMs is expected to increase. Manufacturers are investing in research and development to create TIMs that support the industry’s evolving needs, including improving thermal properties and enhancing environmental sustainability. There is growing interest in developing biodegradable TIMs to reduce the environmental impact of battery production and disposal. As battery technologies evolve, TIMs must adapt to new cell chemistries and packaging designs to remain effective in next-generation battery systems.

Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are essential components in the thermal management of battery packs, particularly in liquid cooling systems. As the demand for high-performance batteries grows, the importance of advanced TIMs will continue to increase. By understanding the types, performance characteristics, and application methods of TIMs, manufacturers can optimise their battery systems for better performance and reliability.

Furthermore, integrating advanced TIMs with intelligent thermal management systems, which use sensors and real-time data analysis to optimise thermal performance, represents a significant advancement in the field. As the industry continues to evolve, collaboration between TIM manufacturers, battery designers, and thermal engineers will be essential in driving innovation and achieving the ambitious performance targets of future energy storage solutions. The future of TIMs looks promising, with ongoing innovations set to revolutionise thermal management and play an increasingly vital role in ensuring the efficiency, safety, and longevity of battery packs in electric vehicles and energy storage systems.

Chris - Senior Technical Engineer -XD THERMAL


I've worked in battery thermal management for over 5 years, handling lots of international projects. If you're curious about battery liquid cooling products or services, feel free to ask me any questions!


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