High-Voltage Fast Charging
with Battery Liquid Cooling Tech

High-voltage fast charging is a technology primarily used in electric vehicles and some mobile devices. It works by increasing the voltage above conventional levels, delivering energy to the battery at a faster rate. This significantly reduces charging time and enhances device efficiency. However, not all devices support this technology, and using it with incompatible devices can cause overheating and damage. Ensuring compatibility is crucial before using high-voltage fast charging.

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Development status of high-voltage fast charging

The demand for efficient charging solutions is growing alongside the increase in new energy vehicle ownership. High-voltage fast charging, seen as the future mainstream method, addresses this need. By 2025, the global penetration of 800V models is expected to reach 13%. This platform involves multiple segments, including vehicles, charging piles, and batteries, aiming to improve charging efficiency and advance new energy vehicle technology.

Why is Battery liquid cooling necessary?

High-voltage fast charging (HVFC) is playing a transformative role in electric vehicles, but it also poses a major challenge – heat generation. During fast charging, battery cells generate a lot of heat, which must be dissipated efficiently to ensure safe and stable charging. This requires a cooling system at the PACK level.

Battery thermal management systems utilize three common cooling methods. Air cooling is the simplest and most cost-effective method, utilizing natural or fan-assisted low-temperature air to dissipate heat from the battery cells. However, due to its low heat exchange efficiency and poor temperature uniformity, it is typically used in early electric passenger cars and A00 models.

The second method is the cold plate cooling method, in which a cooling plate is placed at the bottom or side of the battery cell. The plate uses a liquid or refrigerant to carry away the heat. While this method is obviously faster and more effective than air cooling, it is more complex and costly. It is currently the preferred solution for most autonomous, joint venture and Tesla-branded vehicles. 

Lastly, submerged liquid cooling, still in the research phase and yet to be adopted in mass-produced models, immerses the battery in coolant. This method necessitates high system insulation to avoid short-circuits.

In short, liquid cooling becomes an important solution. Unlike air-cooled modules, which allow air to enter and the adsorption of dust, salt spray and water vapor may shorten the service life of the charging pile, liquid-cooled modules feature a fully enclosed design. This isolation from the external environment increases the durability of the components. In addition, liquid cooling significantly reduces operating noise. Instead of using multiple high-speed fans, liquid-cooled systems utilize liquid circulation to transfer heat to a heat sink, where it is then dissipated by a large, low-speed fan. As a result, liquid-cooled systems are much quieter to operate, making them a more practical and efficient choice for high-voltage fast charging.

How High-Voltage Fast Charging Works with Battery Liquid Cooling Tech ?

High-voltage fast charging (HVFC) combined with liquid-cooled panels can significantly improve the efficiency of charging electric vehicles. Now let’s find out how it can be combined with liquid cooling panels in the vehicle, in the charging cable and in the charging post respectively.

Inside the car:

Electric vehicles (EVs) generate a significant amount of heat during operation and charging, especially under high-voltage rapid charging conditions. To ensure the safety and performance of the battery pack, this heat must be managed effectively. Liquid cooling plates are an advanced thermal management technology widely used for efficient heat dissipation in electric vehicles.

In electric vehicle battery packs, liquid cooling plates are typically installed on the bottom or side of the battery. Customized liquid cold plates can be designed to fit specific battery configurations, ensuring optimal cooling. The liquid-cooled plate absorbs and carries away the heat generated by the battery through the circulation of internal coolant. The steps are as follows:

Coolant Circulation: Coolant (e.g. water or glycol mixture) is circulated within the liquid cooling plate. The coolant is circulated through the battery pack by a pump system to absorb the heat generated by the battery.

Heat Absorption: When the battery is charged or discharged, the heat generated is absorbed by the liquid cooling plate through heat transfer. Since the liquid cooling plate has a large contact area with the battery cell, the heat transfer efficiency is very high.

Heat Dissipation: The heat-absorbed coolant is transported to the cooling device (e.g. radiator) through the circulation system to release the heat to the external environment, and the cooled liquid is then returned to the liquid cooling plate to form a cycle.

Charging cord:

High-voltage fast charging has greatly increased the need for liquid-cooled charging cables. Conventional charging cables generate a lot of heat as the current increases, especially since the heat generated is proportional to the square of the current. This leads to a rapid rise in temperature, potentially damaging electronic components and posing a safety risk. To mitigate this problem, we use liquid-cooled charging cables. Here is a detailed breakdown:

Liquid-cooled charging cables handle higher currents without overheating, improving safety, efficiency, and user experience.

Charging Pile:

Charging piles are critical for supporting high-voltage fast charging. Integrating liquid cooling plates in these stations ensures optimal temperature management:

XD THERMAL's Role in Battery Liquid Cooling Solutions

XD THERMAL specializes in battery pack liquid cooling solutions, tailoring service to actual application scenarios. Their expertise covers various sectors, including industrial and commercial optical storage systems, EV Liquid cooling charging pile power station BIPV HOME, and more. By leveraging XD THERMAL’s advanced battery liquid cooling technology, these applications benefit from improved thermal management, enhancing overall efficiency and reliability.

Own factory,

stable delivery time

Diverse solutions,

cost optimization

Comprehensive testing,

safe and reliable

Conclusion

High Voltage Fast Charging (HVFC) has revolutionized the charging process for electric vehicles, significantly reducing time and enhancing convenience. However, the excessive heat generated during HVFC poses a challenge. Liquid cooling systems offer the best solution, ensuring safety, stability, and extended lifespan of charging equipment. By incorporating liquid cooling in all components of the charging process, from cables to piles, we achieve superior heat management, lower maintenance costs, and improved user experience.

Chris - Senior Technical Engineer -XD THERMAL

Chris

I've worked in battery thermal management for over 5 years, handling lots of international projects. If you're curious about battery liquid cooling products or services, feel free to ask me any questions!

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