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Friction stir welding

Friction stir welding definition

Friction stir welding refers to the process of locally melting the material to be welded using the heat generated by the high-speed rotation of a welding tool in friction. As the welding tool moves forward along the welding interface, the plasticized material flows from the front to the rear of the tool under the action of the rotational friction force and forms a dense solid-phase weld seam under the tool’s pressure.

Friction Stir Welding Principle

The principle of friction stir welding is similar to conventional friction welding, as it also utilizes friction heat and plastic deformation heat as the heat source for welding. The difference lies in the fact that in the friction stir welding process, a cylindrical or other shaped (such as a threaded cylinder) welding pin is inserted into the seam of the workpiece. Through the high-speed rotation of the welding head, it is brought into frictional contact with the material of the workpiece, thereby raising the temperature and softening the material at the joint. At the same time, material is subjected to stirring friction to complete the welding.

Advantages of Friction Stir Welding

1.The microstructure changes in the heat-affected zone of the welded joint are minimal. Residual stresses are relatively low, and the welded workpiece is less prone to deformation.

2.High efficiency (capable of completing longer weld seams, large cross-sections, and welding in different positions in a single operation).

3.Convenient operating process (enabling mechanization and automation, simple equipment, low energy consumption, high efficiency, and low requirements on the working environment).

4.Low cost (no need for welding wire, no pre-deoxidation of aluminum alloys, and no need for shielding gas when welding).

5.Suitable for welding heat-crack-sensitive materials and for welding dissimilar materials.

6.Welding process is safe, pollution-free, smoke-free, and radiation-free.

Disadvantages of Friction Stir Welding

1.The workpiece for welding must be rigidly fixed, and there should be a backing plate on the opposite side.

2.When the welding process is completed and the stirring probe is withdrawn from the workpiece, a keyhole is formed at the end of the weld seam, making it difficult to repair the weld.

3.The tool design, process parameters, and mechanical performance data are only available within a limited range of alloys.

4.The performance needs to be improved (e.g., considering corrosion resistance, residual stresses, and deformation in specialized applications).

5.The welding speed is not very high (when single-pass welding of sheet metal is performed).

6.The wear and consumption of the stirring head are too fast.

Friction Stir Water Cooling Plate

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a method used to create a sealed gap by joining baseplates and cover plates together, forming a water cooling plate. This process falls under the category of seamless connection forming. The FSW water cooling plate process offers flexibility in design, with no visible weld points but high reliability. It allows for the manufacturing of very thin water cooling plates, with the entire water cooling plate thickness ranging from 5-7mm, meeting lightweight standards. The application of the FSW process enables designers to have greater flexibility in their designs and turn their innovative designs into products more effectively.


Furthermore, the water channels in the water cooling plate become easier to configure due to the application of the friction stir welding process. These channels can be designed as single-pass or multi-pass, or they can be produced using an extrusion and subsequent welding method, allowing for rapid mass production and a significant increase in production capacity.




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